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Rhopoint IQ-S Goniophotometer 20/60/85

  • 20/60/85° Gloss meter for matt to mirror finishes
  • Haze measurement to ASTM E430
  • Full statistical analysis with trend graphs
  • Pass / Fail for easy identification of non conformances

£4,115

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The Rhopoint IQ

The Rhopoint IQ Gloss, Haze & DOI Meter quantifies surface quality problems that are invisible to a standard glossmeter and profiles how light is reflected from a surface.

The Rhopoint IQ can measure

  • 20/60/85° Gloss
  • RSPEC
  • Reflectance haze
  • Reflected image quality (RIQ)
  • Distinctness of Image (DOI)
  • Goniophotometric curves

Glossmeters are usually used to measure the “shininess” of a surface but are not sensitive to common effects which reduce appearance quality.

IQ GLOSS measurements are fully compatible with existing Novo-Gloss and Micro-TRI-gloss results.

Dualgloss 20/60° or Trigloss 20/60/85° versions are for maximum accuracy and resolution in all gloss applications.

What does the Rhopoint IQ measure?

Gloss measurement diagram

Gloss

A measurement proportional to the amount of light reflected from a surface.

Geometry: The correct measurement geometry should be used according to the sample finish – matt: 85°, mid gloss: 60°, high gloss: 20°

IQ product main

RSPEC

The peak gloss measured over a very narrow angle.

Usage: It is very sensitive to surface texture and can be used to identify subtle differences in smooth surfaces.

DOI example

Distinctness of Image (DOI)

A measure of how clearly a reflected image will appear in a reflective surface.

Orange peel dramatically reduces appearance quality without affecting gloss readings. These two test panels measure identically with a standard glossmeter. The Rhopoint IQ with RIQ/DOI measurement can quantify the differences.

Car detailing - IQ

Reflected Image Quality (RIQ)

RIQ is used to quantify effects such as orange peel and surface waviness. This new parameter gives higher resolution results compared to Distinctness of Image (DOI) measurement and better mimics human perception of surface texture, especially on high quality finishes such as automotive.

Symptoms of poor RIQ: Orange peel, brush marks, waviness or other structures visible on the surface. Reflected images are distorted.

Causes: Application problems, incorrect coating flow, coating viscosity too high/low, sag or flow of coating before curing, incorrect particle size/distribution, overspray, improper flash/ recoat time, inter-coat compatibility, incorrect cure times and cure temperature.

Reflectance Haze

An optical effect caused by microscopic texture or residue on a surface.

Visible symptoms: A milky finish is apparent on the surface with a loss of reflected contrast. Halos and patterns can be seen around reflections of high intensity light sources.

Causes: Poor dispersion, raw material incompatibility, additive migration, vehicle quality, stoving/drying/ curing conditions, polishing marks, fine scratches, ageing, oxidisation, poor cleanliness/surface residue.

Car panel with orange peel and haze

Reflectance haze compensation

The instrument compensates for reflection from within the coating for highly reflective pigments, metallic coatings and speciality pigments, allowing the haze of any painted surface to be measured.

Why measure gloss?

The gloss level of an object is one of the visual attributes used by a consumer to determine whether or not that object is fit for purpose.

Gloss has been defined as ‘The attribute of surfaces that causes them to have shiny or lustrous, metallic appearance.’

Manufacturers design their products to have maximum appeal: from highly reflective car body panels to glossy household appliances or matt finish automotive interior trim.

This is especially noticeable where parts may be produced by different manufacturers or factories but will be placed adjacent to one another to create the finished product.

Gloss can also be a measure of the quality of the surface, for instance a drop in the gloss of a coated surface may indicate problems with its cure, leading to other failures such as poor adhesion or lack of protection for the coated surface.

The gloss of a surface can be greatly influenced by a number of factors, for example the smoothness achieved during polishing, the amount and type of coating applied or the quality of the substrate.

It is for these reasons that many manufacturing industries monitor the gloss of their products, from cars, printing and furniture to food, pharmaceuticals and consumer electronics.

It is important therefore that gloss levels are achieved consistently on every product or across different batches of products.

How is gloss measured?

Gloss is measured by shining a known amount of light at a surface and quantifying the reflectance.

Which angle should I use for my application?

ISO 2813 and ASTM D523 (the most commonly used standards) describe three measurement angles to measure gloss across all surfaces.

Gloss is measured in gloss units (GU) and is traceable to reference standards held at NIST (USA).

Universal Measurement Angle: 60°

All gloss levels can be measured using the standard measurement angle of 60°. This is used as the reference angle with the complimentary angles of 85° and 20° often used for low and high gloss levels respectively.

Low Gloss: 85°

For improved resolution of low gloss a grazing angle of 85° is used to measure the surface. This angle is recommended for surfaces which measure less than 10GU when measured at 60°.

This angle also has a larger measurement spot which will average out differences in the gloss of textured or slightly uneven surfaces.

High Gloss: 20°

The acute measurement angle of 20° gives improved resolution for high gloss surfaces. Surfaces that measure 70GU and above at the standard angle of 60° are often measured with this geometry.

The 20° angle is more sensitive to haze effects that affect the appearance of a surface.

Speciality measuring angle: 45°

This measuring angle is in accordance with the ISO 2457 standard for the gloss measurement of plastic films and solid plastic parts as well as according to the standard ASTM C346 for the gloss measurement of ceramics

Universal Measurement Angle: 60°

All gloss levels can be measured using the standard measurement angle of 60°. This is used as the reference angle with the complimentary angles of 85° and 20° often used for low and high gloss levels respectively.

Low Gloss: 85°

For improved resolution of low gloss a grazing angle of 85° is used to measure the surface. This angle is recommended for surfaces which measure less than 10GU when measured at 60°.

This angle also has a larger measurement spot which will average out differences in the gloss of textured or slightly uneven surfaces.

High Gloss: 20°

The acute measurement angle of 20° gives improved resolution for high gloss surfaces. Surfaces that measure 70GU and above at the standard angle of 60° are often measured with this geometry.

The 20° angle is more sensitive to haze effects that affect the appearance of a surface.

To quantify haze, distinctness of image, reflected image quality and other surface texturing please consider the Rhopoint IQ.

What is haze and why measure it?

Haze can be described as near specular reflection. It is caused by a microscopic surface structure which slightly changes the direction of a reflected light causing a bloom adjacent to the specular (gloss) angle. The surface has less reflective contrast and a shallow milky effect.

In the coatings industry, this microscopic surface texture is often due to poorly dispersed raw materials, incompatible raw materials or oxidisation and weathering. For polished metal surfaces, haze is often associated with polishing marks or chemical residue.

Haze

Haze is light that has been reflected by small surface structures adjacent to the main specular component.

Reflectance haze – An optical effect caused by microscopic texture or residue on a surface.

Haze equation
Car rim application

Reflection Haze

Reflection haze is an optical phenomenon usually associated with high gloss surfaces.

It is a common surface fault that reduces appearance quality. A hazy surface has a visibly shallower reflection with a milky finish and halos appear around reflections of strong light sources.

Haze Sample 1
Sample 1

No Haze, deep reflection

Haze Sample 2
Sample 2

High Haze, ‘shallow’ finish

A high gloss finish with haze exhibits a milky finish with low reflective contrast, reflected highlights and lowlights are less pronounced.

Haze Sample 3
Sample 3

Low Haze

Haze Sample 4
Sample 4

Higher Haze

On surfaces with haze, halos are visible around the reflections of strong light sources.

Causes of Haze

Coating & Raw Materials
  • Dispersion
  • Pigment properties
  • Particle size
  • Binder compatibility
  • Influence and migration of additives
  • Resin types and quality
Curing
  • Drying conditions
  • Cure temperature
Post Coating
  • Polishing marks
  • Cleanliness
  • Ageing and oxidisation
HAZE EXAMPLES
Haze: Often visible as milky finish on high gloss surfaces

Gloss and Haze Measurement with Array Technology

The IQ Flex 20 uses a 512 element linear diode array which profiles reflected light in a large arc from 14° to 27°. The instrument processes this high resolution data, selecting individual elements within the array that equate to the angular tolerences outlined in international measurement standards.

In a single 20° measurement, the following calculations are made:

FLEX 20 CALCULATIONS

Curved Surface Adjustment

A major advantage of the IQ Flex 20 is that it automatically compensates for curved or textured sample surfaces by virtually adjusting the measurement position. Conventional gloss- hazemeters have fixed optics which can make measurement unreliable as any sample curvature will reflect light away from the centre of the measurement sensor causing errors.

The IQ Flex 20 automatically adjusts the sensor position by detecting the peak of the reflected light. The laws of reflection state that the incident angle is equal to the reflection angle thus the peak equates exactly to the 20° gloss angle.

SURFACE ADJUSTMENT DIAGRAM
The IQ Flex 20 automatically adjusts for non-flat surfaces by sensing the reflected peak and virtually adjusting the position of the sensor.
REFLECTION HAZE DIAGRAM
The IQ Flex 20 compensates for reflection from within the coating for highly reflective pigments, metallic coatings and speciality pigments, allowing the haze of any painted surface to be measured.

Diffuse Corrected Measurement with Array Technology*

Reflection haze is caused by micro texture on a surface which causes a small amount of light to be reflected adjacent to the gloss angle.
For white surfaces, bright colours and metallics, a certain amount of diffuse light, reflected from within the material, is also present in this region.

This diffuse light exaggerates the haze signal for these surfaces causing higher than expected readings.

* Only enabled when the instruments is set to haze measuring mode of ASTM E430

Corrected Haze Measurement on Metallic Coatings

For non metallic surfaces, the diffuse component is Lambertian: it is equal in amplitude at all angles in relation to the sample surface. Conventional gloss-hazemeters measure diffuse reflection using a luminosity sensor positioned away from the gloss angle. Luminosity is subtracted from the haze signal allowing metallic surfaces to be measured independently of their colour.

COMPENSATION DIAGRAM
Goniophotometric information profiling the reflection from white, grey and black panels with an identical topcoat.
METALLIC COATING DIAGRAM
The Rhopoint IQ captures compensation information from a region adjacent to the haze measurement angle. This means it can be used on metallic coatings which reflect light.

An advantage of the IQ Flex 20 is that unlike a conventional instrument, compensation is calculated using a region adjacent to the haze angle. This technique gives compatible readings on solid colours but also compensates for directional reflection from metallic coatings and speciality pigments.

The Rhopoint IQ Flex 20 measures reflected image quality; it is the only hand held instrument that profiles how light is reflected from a surface.

The Rhopoint IQ Flex 20 quantifies surface quality problems that are invisible to a standard glossmeter.

Reflected Image Quality (RIQ)

RIQ is used to quantify effects such as orange peel and surface waviness. This new parameter gives higher resolution results compared to Distinctness of Image (DOI) measurement and better mimics human perception of surface texture, especially on high quality finishes.

Symptoms of Poor RIQ: Orange peel, brush marks, waviness or other structures visible on the surface. Reflected images are distorted.

Causes: Application problems, incorrect coating flow, coating viscosity too high/low, sag or flow of coating before curing, incorrect particle size/distribution, overspray, improper flash/re-coat time, inter coat compatibility, incorrect cure times or cure temperature.

REFLECTANCE HAZE COMPENSATION APPLICATION