Hanatek Advanced Friction Tester (AFT)
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Who measures slip/friction?
Friction parameters help the manufacturer understand how the finish of the blown film or printed carton can influence the feeding and running speed. Surface slip is a key factor when printing, erecting or filling packaging materials on an automatic line.
What is slip/friction?
A product’s slip resistance is characterised by it’s coefficients of friction:
Static COF = Fs/N Dynamic COF = Fd/N
Where Fs is the maximum static frictional force and the Fd is the average dynamic frictional force.
N is the Normal force, i.e. the force of gravity acting on the sample and test sled.
In practical terms, the static slip relates to the force required to get two resting surfaces moving, dynamic slip is the smaller force that is required to keep the surfaces moving once this initial “inertia” is overcome. These values are expressed as ratios and do not have units, they are usually quoted as a decimal value between 0 and 1.
- Product consistency
- Packaging speed
- Improving manufacturing process • Optimising machinery settings
- Direct costs: Raw materials, especially speciality polymers
- Indirect costs: Rework/ Recycling/ Replacement cost/ Spoiled package content
How is coefficient of friction measured?
All methods of COF measurement involve preparing
a sample into two flat pieces, the samples are placed together and a weight is applied. One of the samples is held in a fixed position, a force is applied to the other sample until they begin to slip against one another.
Horizontal Plane (Flat Bed) Friction Testing
To measure Static and Dynamic coefficients of friction it is necessary to use a fixed bed instrument. These instruments use a motor to pull a sled across the sample, using a load cell to measure the forces.
Original slip testing instruments were converted tensile testers that used a cord to pull the sample.
The use of a cord has now been removed from most friction measurement standards due to the uncertainty added by its own elasticity and problems with sample positioning.
How can Coefficient of Friction Values Relate to Packaging Speeds?
COF can often be related to the feeding and running attributes of products, for instance UV varnished food cartons have a slip coefficient that is related to the formulation of the UV coating its cure and film weight.
Cartons that have a very low static coefficient of friction may have handling difficulties as they will tend to slide apart and are difficult to place into feeding hoppers.
In contrast, products which have a high COF will tend to stick together and can be prone to misfeeding due to multiple cartons entering the packaging line at once.
Different packaging lines will often require products with specific surface frictional profiles to achieve their highest running and feeding speeds, it is only by measuring and specifying these values that a manufacturer can achieve maximum productivity.
What Parameters Affect Coefficient of Friction Values?
COF is primarily influenced by the chemical composition of the surface and its surface profile, in packaging this is often a coating applied
to the packaging.
Other important factors that affect COF are test speed, the normal force (mass of the sled), contact area and geometry of the sample, these values are often specified in the test method (ASTM D1894 and ISO 8295).
Friction parameters help the manufacturer understand how the finish of a blown film or printed carton can influence the feeding and running speed.
The detailed force curves identify any inconsistencies on the sample surface that may reduce packing or feeding performance in the production environment.
This powerful feature can highlight subtle differences in substrates or coatings that allow the user to fine tune their product for their production conditions giving optimum feeding, running and packing speeds.
Operation & Results
Pre-loaded ISO/ASTM/TAPPI Slip Test Methods
The instrument has pre-loaded test instructions that help ensure samples are tested to international standards.
Live Graphical Representation of Results
Results are given at the end of the test for static and dynamic COF.
All results can be compared graphically – a previously tested reference can also be overlaid to help understand batch to batch consistency and quality.
Test Results in PDF Format
Full graphical and statistical analysis of test results can be printed to PDF for easy reporting.
Create and Store Electronic References for Future Comparison
The instrument calculates detailed statistics for multiple measurements which can be saved. The graph of these measurements can be overlaid against future tests.
Printed packagingDetermination of the static and kinetic Coefficients of Friction
Plastic filmStandard test method for static and kinetic AFT
ASTM D1894, ISO 8295
LeatherFriction measurement of leather
LabelsFriction measurement of labels
FoilsFriction measurement of foils
PaperDetermination of the static and kinetic Coefficients of Friction
Printed paperCoefficients of static and kinetic friction of uncoated writing and printing paper by use of the horizontal plane method
TextilesDetermination of tear resistance
CartonsFriction measurement of cartons
Automatic sled placement with variable dwell times give more repeatable static slip results.
Fixed link between the sled and the load cell means that there are no errors in friction from pulley wheels or cords associated with other measuring instruments.
Touch screen interface
The AFT uses an intuitive touch screen interface making it accessible and easy to use.
Development tool or Q.A. instrument
This flexible instrument can be configured for quality or research use.
Create bespoke test methods. Statistical and graphical analysis of results
Pre-loaded ISO/ASTM/TAPPI/FINAT test methods. Date/operator stamped results. User definable pass/ fail criteria with optional password protection.
The package includes:
Simple sample preparation with the Hanatek Universal Sample Cutter (USC)
The Hanatek USC has been designed for the simple cutting of samples for the packaging industry. Dies can be configured to cut samples for most test types including: friction, tensile, grammage, O2 permeability, CO2 permeability, WVTR, rub resistance, carton crease, carton stiffness and many more.
|ISO 8295||Plastics - film and sheeting||Determination of the coefficients of friction|
|ISO 15359||Paper and board||Determination of the static and kinetic coefficients of friction - horizontal plane method|
|ASTM D1894||Plastics - film and sheeting||Standard test method for static and kinetic coefficients of friction|
|TAPPI 549||Printing paper||Coefficients of static and kinetic friction of uncoated writing and printing paper by use of the horizontal plane method|
|ASTM D2534||Wax coating||Standard test method for coefficient of kinetic friction for wax coatings|
|ASTM D3330||Tape||Standard test method for peel adhesion of pressure sensitive tape|
|FTM1FINAT||Peel test||Test method no. 1, Peel adhesion (180°) at 300mm per minute|
|FTM2FINAT||Peel test||Test method no. 2, Peel adhesion (90°) at 300mm per minute|
|FTM3FINAT||Adhesion||Test method no. 3, Low speed release force|
|FTM21FINAT||Adhesion||Test method no. 21, Ink Adhesion - basic|
|ISO 6383||Textile||Determination of tear resistance -- Part 1: Trouser tear method|
|Resolution||0.1g / 0.001 COF|
|Sled||200g (film) or 200g (board) |
Other sled weights by request
Custom sled base materials available
|Size||180mm (H) x 550mm (W) x 300mm (D)|
|Net Weight||7kg (Instrument), 4kg (PC)|
|Touch Screen PC Information|
|Operating system||Windows 10|
Free extended warranty
Free extended 2 year warranty: Requires registration at www.rhopointinstruments.com/help-services/forms-feedback/instrument-registration/ within 28 days of purchase. Without registration, 1 year standard warranty applies.
Calibration and service
Fast and economic service via our global network of accredited calibration and service centres. Please visit www.rhopointinstruments.com/help-services/calibration-servicing/ for detailed information.
What’s in the box
- 2 x USB data cables
- 1 x Friction sled template
- 4 x Sample securing magnets
- 1 x Hanatek USB drive
- 1 x Calibration pulley attachment with fixing attachments
- 1 x 100g calibration check weight
- UKAS traceable calibration certificate